Types of seaweeds pdf



types of seaweeds pdf Seaweed naturally contains many vitamins, folic acid, MSG, niacin, and many minerals. Consider making a collage for framing, or make gift cards. The protocol yields about 2. Green seaweed have different types of longevity. The potential for using mangroves and/or seaweeds as filters for wastes from intensive shrimp pond farming is also discussed. , 2002). Major polysaccharides found in marine algae include fucoidan and laminarans found in brown algae, carrageenan in present red algae and ulvan in green algae [ 4 ]. We’ve listed some of the more commonly eaten ones below. But, this is far less than Japan uses for certain seaweeds, particularly those used for industrial processing of specialty seaweed products. Yimin Qin, in Bioactive Seaweeds for Food Applications, 2018. In this activity, students will learn the parts of algae, compare them to land plants, and rotate through exploration stations to investigate seaweed close up with their different Bacterial role in green and red seaweeds development: (a) promoting Ulva zoospores settlement on bacterial EPS; (b) reverting normal morphogenesis in axenic culture of Ulva upon putative morphology-inducing bacterial strains; (c) reverting wild-type cell structure of Ulva in the presence of appropriate bacteria; and (d) regeneration of new buds May 15, 2018 · Good examples of algae include seaweed, giant kelp, and pond scum. Brown and green seaweeds are generally eaten for food, while the browns and reds are used in the production of the hydrocolloids: agar, carrageenan and alginate used as industrial thickeners. 6/5 from 841 votes. Hijiki belongs to the family of seaweed types called sargassum and this was the seaweed used by Chinese physicians to treat goitre as long ago as the first century AD. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches. Maine Seaweed Council ; Rockweed Ecology, Industry, and Management fact sheet (PDF, 4. The red algae are commonly sold in dried sheets and used to roll sushi. Types of carrageenan. Description Black seaweed is an annual—it grows and dies back each year. However, they possess a blade that is leaflike, a stipe that is stemlike, and a holdfast that resembles a root. Sea plants are simple marine plants that grow in the shallow waters at the edge of the world's oceans. Part I presents the geographic distribution of seaweeds and seagrasses around the world, environmental factors, floral history, and relevant paleoceanographic considerations, covered geographically. why not call it sea vegetables? Weed sounds so unappetizing, so unwanted. A study recently published in Advances in Botanical Research by Dr. 31 μM trolox/g and CUPRAC ranged from A total of 2,257 broiler chickens were involved in this study. Its ability to absorb carbon dioxide, 1. 1 day ago · Seaweeds are marine organisms with increased contents of bioactive compounds, which are described as potential anti-HPV and anti-cervical cancer agents. Apr 30, 2018 · DIY seaweed fertilizer teas are made by soaking dried seaweed in a pail or barrel of water with a partially closed lid. While there are many different types of algae found floating in the ocean all around world, the Sargasso Sea is unique in that it harbors species of sargassum that are 'holopelagi' - this means that the algae not only freely floats around the ocean, but it reproduces vegetatively on the high seas. Experts believe seaweed can take over plastic soon, as products made from it not only help save the environment, but also cut costs as well. Dietary fiber can constitute up to 75% of the dry components of seaweeds. TABLE 68 US: SEAWEED CULTIVATION MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2018-2025 (USD MILLION) TABLE 69 US: SEAWEED CULTIVATION MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2018-2025 (KT) 12. nitidum, and Por. SHellfiSH and SeaWeed may not be taken from private beaches without the owner's or lessee's permission. What is the stem-like structure called? 5. How to start a seaweed production business. Seaweeds display a variety of different reproductive and life cycles and the description above is only a general example of one type, called alternation of generations. 1. However, you could ingest too much iodine if you eat large amounts over long periods. , 2010) is one good example of this “naturality” trend in the food industries, which may open up into new innovations. Today there are many types of seaweeds consumed in Hawaii. But. There is an abundance of information on the nutrition of seaweeds in books listed in the reference section. Different types of seaweed prefer different conditions. The different types of seaweed available for consumption can be first divided into broad categories which are further available in various subtypes. There are species such as the Codium tomentosum that are perennial, thus they live for many years; and there are also seasonal species, that with the proper conditions of light and nutrients, grow quickly, even forming the famous Green tides. New Sea Education Association findings support ongoing efforts to better understand the ecological implications of these events and how they should be Oct 09, 2019 · The Sargasso Sea is a vast patch of ocean named for a genus of free-floating seaweed called Sargassum. Nov 26, 2020 · Increasing ranges of edible seaweed are available commercially, and this new book explores the different types as well as a fantastic collection of creative recipes to cook with them. pdf), Text File (. The greatest variety of red seaweeds is found in subtropical and tropical waters, while brown seaweeds are more common in cooler, temperate waters. It differs slightly in color, flavor, and nutrient profile from the type University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | Make Mānoa yours Feb 25, 2020 · Seaweed is a general nomenclature used for a number of species of algae and marine plants that breed in varied water bodies like rivers and oceans. Depending upon local conditions, bands of seaweed within these zones may be narrow or broad. It has been noted that seaweed extracts exert a stimulatory effect on B lymphocytes and macrophages, which may be used clinically for the modulation of immune responses. The categories under which the seaweeds are classified are: (A) Sea Grasses. c) Press samples of the seaweeds. While people once gathered seaweed by hand from open boats, today vacuum powered mechanical harvesters are frequently Seaweed Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. Agar - gelatinous substance obtained from red seaweed and used in biological culture media and as a thickener in foods 2. Enjoy these types of kelp uncooked, but stick to moderate portions of 20 grams or less per day. The presentation is interactive and uses Q &A to involve the students. They are also the varieties that have had the most scientific research conducted on them. 15 Annual quantities for other seaweeds, such as dulse, carrageen moss, and wracks, are estimated to be between 50 and 250 tonnes. Usually they grow more seaweed products, while a large proportion is also used in the production of over 85,000 tonnes of viscous polysaccharides for various food and industrial applications [4]. Seaweeds are generally Black Seaweed, Nori, Laver Porphyra is in the red seaweed group. The first is by being grazed directly, which is discussed in more detail in Section 5. These inflate with the oxygen of photosynthesis and float in rock pools like curled intestines. They grow in a wide range of sizes from minuscule to gigantic. com). Stipe 5. Techniques of Seaweed Culture 4. Common types of seaweed include nori, kombu, kelp, dulce and Irish moss. of seaweed meal, which is sold for US $ 5 million. b) Identify native seaweeds, and look for possible alien (introduced seaweeds). Social license to operate could be useful to the seaweed cultivation industry as it expands – Smaller-sale seaweed cultivation organisations are already practicing activities that are associated with gaining social license to operate Clearly define seaweed industry terms –to alleviate confusion in understanding between Seaweed has been collected in northern New England for agricultural purposes since the first settlers arrived over three hundred years ago. Black seaweed begins to grow in early spring. While the content varies greatly, a serving of seaweed may contain more than 4,500 micrograms of iodine. the seaweeds, or live in the seaweeds, as for example, sponges. The XRD pattern of the carbonized marine algae is The rise in awareness about the medical advantages of commercial seaweed on daily basis is the essential development factor for the global commercial seaweed market. are seaweed farmers and the rest are seaweed processors and traders. These are capable of synthesizing the complex organic substances from the simple inorganic compounds present in sea water. Early usage was by coastal dwellers, who collected storm-cast seaweed, usually large brown seaweeds, and dug it into local soils. 0%. Apr 05, 2019 · Health Benefits of wakame seaweed. CHICAGO, Oct. The protocol was applied to 10 seaweed species. Several species of Porphyra are found along the west coast and approximately 30 species exist worldwide. Seaweeds are photosynthetic macroalgae, the majority of which live in the sea, and are usually divided into green, red and brown algae. Request for Question Clarification by hummer-ga on 04 Jan 2005 17:11 PST Hi again, I only posted the one link - my first sentence was just a suggestion to view the pdf for more details. Two examples of different types of seaweed: a) Caulerpa; b) Halimeda (Click-thru on images for greater detail. seaweed farms in the North Sea linked to a land-based chain for logistics, processing and sales to the food an feed industry. Semi-refined carrageenan, also called PNG (Philippine Natural Grade) or PES (Processed Eucheuma Seaweed). The team cut sections of seaweed and placed them in grips each connected to an arm in a metal frame. Thus, the utilization of seaweed-based biopolymers for edible films and lectins in a perspective of food and health applications is studied in this current article. In laboratory studies, polysaccharide alginate, naturally found in some types of seaweed, has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic properties . 2. Also, high volume of seaweed consumption into hydrocolloid production coupled with upsurge demand from European countries further propel the growth of the seaweed market. In 2012, 40% of global seaweed production was eaten weeds contain both types: for example, the polysaccharides agar, alginate, and carra-geenan are soluble, while cellulose and xylan are not. A functional salt FRAP antioxidant activity of T. Seaweed has been used by populations around the world for centuries, as food, cosmetics and medicine. Seaweed, a type of algae, is more than just a primary producer: they also convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and are the foundation for many habitats in the ocean. Enter an email address to share your moodboard with a friend, colleague or client. It's an abundant resource that washes up on beaches throughout the world. , Gracilaria sp. Species from all three groups are consumed as food in Total fresh seaweed production was 623,286 tons for all types of seaweed. This has only more recently been approved for food Sep 10, 2020 · Learn more about Sargassum horneri with this Sargassum horneri information sheet (PDF) photo credit: Jessie Altstatt. In general, however, eating this marine algae is a simple way to boost a person's intake of vitamins and minerals The Benefits of Liquid Seaweed Fertilizer | Dengarden Seaweeds are large algae (macroalgae) that grow in a saltwater or marine environment. After collection, tropical seaweeds were washed, air-dried at room temperature (3–5 days; 27–30 °C) to reduce Dec 18, 2020 · Some types of seaweed, like kelp, look like sheets. ac. Fig. Other types of kelp, such as arame and wakame, contain far less iodine than kombu. The research study is an outcome of ext The report also bifurcates global Commercial Seaweeds market based on product type in red seaweed, brown seaweed and green seaweed. Intertidal and estua rine species are the mo st tolerant, especial ly The types of seaweed growing near the high-water mark, where plants are often exposed to air, differ from those growing at lower levels, where there is little or no exposure. It is important to know the particularities of vegetable protein, as one of the types of proteins , to take full advantage. Res. Seaweed is edible algae that grows in the sea. Most of the seaweeds are medium-sized and are available in multiple colors like red, brown, and green. The inclusion dose ranged from 2 to 30 g/kg, while the intervention duration ranged from 21 to 42 days. 2011 is thought to be the first time that an inundation of such a great scale occurred that beaches from Mar 26, 2017 · Seaweed Cultivation Policy Statement. It is concluded that such techniques, based on ecological engineering, seems promising for mitigating environmental impacts from intensive mariculture; however, continued research on this type of solution is required. It is recognizable Additionally, the Japanese and Chinese cultures have used seaweeds to treat goiter and other glandular problems since 300 BC. • Seaweed is allowed to dry in a designated storage area (good options include empty parking lots or fields). Seaweeds Jun 29, 2017 · Seaweed, which can grow rapidly and efficiently, provides plant-based proteins and shows promise as a source of biofuel to replace fossil fuels. The only problem for a lot of people is that seaweed has a distinctive texture and flavor. Total annual use by the global seaweed industry is about 8 million tonnes of wet seaweed. Seaweed Culture Techniques - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Acropora nasuta minimizes this damage by chemically cuing symbiotic goby fishes ( Gobiodon histrio or Paragobiodon echinocephalus ) to remove the toxic seaweed Chlorodesmis fastigiata . There are three main types of seaweed: green, brown and red. JWST079-07 JWST079-Kim September 2, 2011 11:50 Printer Name: Yet to Come 176 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SEAWEEDS Types of Seaweed. How Are Seaweeds Grouped? Most seaweeds are divided into three groups acmrding to their Chapter 14. Global Commercial Seaweeds market report provides geographic analysis covering regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World. They grow best under cold waters at medium depth. Veined blade Mastocarpus papillatus: Turkish washcloth Mazzaella cornucopiae: Iridescent horn-of-plenty Mazzaella splendens: Splendid iridescent seaweed Microcladia borealis: Coarse sea lace Seaweeds are used in many maritime countries as a source of food, for industrial applications and as a fertiliser. Seaweeds are classified as Rhodophyta (red algae), Phaeophyta (brown algae) or Chlorophyta (green algae) depending on their nutrient and chemical composition. Arthritis inflammation is attributed to pro-inflammatory cytokines [5] (signal carrying proteins [8] ). [66] Jul 17, 2020 · Seaweed aquaculture uses no (or insignificant) freshwater resources, and could be located in coastal desert regions. 1, 59-63, 2004 The two chief types of plants occurring in the marine environment are the algae and sea grasses. Organisms: seaweeds, algae, surf grass, sea slugs, interdial fishes. Wakame is a low-claorie and low-fat seafood. Red and brown seaweeds arerich in carotenes (provitamin A) and vitamin C, and their amounts may range from 20 to 170 ppm and 500 to 3000 ppm, respectively. Malachite Green Dye Removal Using the Seaweed Enteromorpha 655 XRD study Further, the x-ray diffraction studies of the carbon prepared from the marine algae Enteromorpha were carried out using Rotoflux x-ray diffractometer 20KW / 20A, Model 10. Long ago, gardeners who lived near the ocean learned that seaweed was good for their plants. We all use seaweed products in our day-to-day life in some way or other. The wave energy and substrate of an area determine which seaweeds will grow Jun 29, 2017 · Seaweed, which can grow rapidly and efficiently, provides plant-based proteins and shows promise as a source of biofuel to replace fossil fuels. , Monostroma (Mon. Traditionally, all classes of seaweeds are known as human foods especially in Asian countries; for instance, red algae are known as Nori and brown algae are called Konbu and Wakame in Japan. Private tideland owners and lessees, and members of their immediate family (grandparents, parents, spouse, siblings, children, and grandchildren) are exempt from personal use daily limits when taking ClaMS, Jul 08, 2018 · Seaweeds farming guide. Here is the step-by-step Instructions for drawing seaweed. 4. It falls into three broad groups based on pigmentation; brown, red and green seaweed. · This type of aquaculture is well suited for small-scale operations, by "grassroots" people running a seaweed business at a household level · All of the seaweeds on the above list occur naturally in this region, except kappaphycus which is an introduced species. Giant kelp is a type of green-brown seaweed that is common in shallow waters in the Pacific Ocean, specifically along North, Central and South America’s Western coast. Seaweed farming or kelp farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. Giant kelp is almost the fastest growing organism on the planet. Fertilizer uses of seaweed date back at least to the nineteenth century. pptx), PDF File (. The global seaweed extracts market has been segmented based on type, application, and region. This type of permit is issued by each regional office and is evaluated on a case by case basis. Then the subalgebras of seaweed type, or just "seaweeds", have been defined by Panyushev (2001) for arbitrary reductive Lie algebras. the Irish seaweed sector is predicted to increase significantly by 2020. tomaintaintheir nutritionalbenefits. There are over 20 types of edible seaweed and even more are being discovered. In general, three major types of carrageenans can be distinguished: Alcohol processed refined carrageenans. Zanzibar seaweed is in demand, but because cultivation takes place in deep water and is highly specialised, women farmers are unable to farm the higher Organisms: barnacles, mussels, seaweeds-Lower intertidal (infra-littoral fringe zone): Submerged most of the time. seaweeds showed growth enhancement. They are large plants and form vast kelp ‘forests’ in the subtidal zone, so providing important habitats for many marine animals and protecting shores by reducing wave action. Infuse the seaweed for several weeks then strain. 3 For instance, sugar kelp is an edible type of seaweed that is part of the brown algae family. Moving the top arm pulled the seaweed: the sample's change in length relative to its starting length told them how much strain it was under. ‘seaweeds’ or sea plants, as they should more correctly be called. Intensively cultivated seaweeds would absorb a significant amount of carbon from ocean water, in addition to excess nutrients released through traditional land-based agricultural systems . Exactly how it works is difficult to pin down, but scientists have found in seaweeds a veritable soup of plant-growth stimulants, vitamins, chelating agents, trace minerals, enzymes, and amino acids, all of which influence the growth of plants in different ways. A staple in Asian diets since ancient times, seaweeds are among the healthiest foods on the planet, packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. All edible marine seaweed belongs to one of three groups of multicellular algae: green algae, brown algae and red algae. The most recent figures are given by AlgaeBase. There are a variety of seaweed types, which are generally categorised into three main groups; red, green and brown, based on colour (McHugh, 2003). Plants or seaweed have a variety of species. , By type, the global commercial seaweeds market has been classified as red seaweeds, brown seaweeds May 15, 2018 · Good examples of algae include seaweed, giant kelp, and pond scum. You can make them in different green shades to create some variety, or one shade to create some consistency. Autonomous seaweed farms like those by New York-based startup GreenWave, are ready to help interested parties have more access to seaweed-based materials. It’s known as carrageen, from the Irish word for “little rock,” and looks somewhat like a baby tree, with blades forking off from a small stalk to form fingers. Seaweed can be collected from the wild but is now increasingly cultivated. Eating miyeok-guk that contains a cup of seaweed enables one to absorb around 22% of the recommended daily vitamin K requirement for women and 29% of the recommended daily vitamin K requirement for men. Seaweed Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. This chapter addresses the worth of seaweed as a sustainable feed ingredient in diets of farm and aquatic animals. When the alginate hits the solution, it instantly polymerizes a skin that surrounds the liquid, forming what appears to be small egg-like caviar Seaweeds are categorized into three types according to their pigment content: red seaweeds (Rhodophyceae), green seaweeds (Chlorophyceae), and brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae). Seaweed-derived food hydrocolloids have been known for over a long period of time, and the processes of their extraction from the respective types of seaweeds have also been evolving for a long time. Dec 12, 2007 · Abstract. Laminaria (kombu), and Undaria are some of the examples of brown seaweeds. 18, 19 In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study (n = 70) in elderly Japanese people living in a nursing home, 300 mg/day of mekabu fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide seaweed extract) given 4 weeks before Seaweeds have been used for many years as a valuable source of organic matter for various soil types and many different fruit and vegetable crops in the coastal regions of world 11. Locally it is called black seaweed. seaweeds was PES medium whereas f/2 and VS media were found not effective for Eucheuma cultures. The strained remains of the seaweed can be mixed into compost bins or gardens. The Philippines is one of the top producers of seaweeds in the world, and aquatic plants next to indonesia (FAO 2007). Mar 13, 2018 · Future of Seaweed. Though Irish moss is a naturally deep purplish red, the seaweed turns white when it washes ashore. In comparison, blue-green algae, which causes harmful algal blooms, is a cyanobacteria and not a marine algae. ) nitidum, and Porphyra (Por. In the future, food enriched in seaweed extracts or containing purified algal polysaccharides may be used to increase the functionality of the food on the market. Together with microscopic algae called phytoplankton, sea plants contribute to the food chain in the sea, provide homes for Jun 06, 2017 · A seaweed of the upper shore, gutweed is able to tolerate very low salinities. In general, however, eating this marine algae is a simple way to boost a person's intake of vitamins and minerals The Benefits of Liquid Seaweed Fertilizer | Dengarden Jun 29, 2018 · • No disposal—seaweed remains in place or is moved off to one side of the beach or to a non-recreational use area. Most seaweed is collected in the spring or summer. In many oriental countries such as Japan, China, Korea, and others, seaweeds are diet gene to spores of several commercially important seaweed genera, taking advantage of the life cycle(Qin, Jiang, Yu, Li, & Sun, 2010). It can be dried for easier transport, or incorporated wet into compost. Edible Films Mar 15, 2016 · It is, in fact, seaweed, and it has a multitude of culinary uses. pilulifera, different Nov 22, 2016 · Seaweeds and seagrasses contribute to secondary production in the ecosystem in two ways. The west coast of Scotland has suitable inlets and sea lochs for seaweed cultivation, with many already used for aquaculture production. complex type N-glycans bearing 1-2 xylosyl and 1-3 fucosyl residues present in either algae or seagrass. The seaweed is a mass or growth of marine plants. , Seaweed extracts market has shown an exceptional penetration in developed economies in North America. Bocas ARTS PI, Dr. The teacher can use an image of macroaglae to show which type of macroalgae is involved in different uses. It is interesting to note that the control exhibited a Maine Seaweed, LLC Each type of seaweed may contain slightly different nutrients and minerals. Comparison of different material types To compare the algicidal activity by different types of materials from the seaweed C. Which type of seaweed can be important in the formation of a coral reef? Answers 1. So again, I want macroalgae/seaweed/kelp, not microalgae. These organisms can occur as either single cell organisms or multicellular species for the large ones. This photo shows the brown seaweed Sargassum growing amongst corals on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. It is also used in the cuisines of Korea, Peru, Wales and North American Indians. This article presents information on the nutritional aspects of seaweeds in terms of fiber, mineral content, fats and lipids, vitamin contents, and components that have a confirmed and investigated nutritional effect. The Romans used seaweeds in the treatment of wounds, burns, and rashes. Today, Japan is the leading importer of seaweed, while Korea is the premier exporter-with Japan as its main customer. You can find the patt Jan 07, 2016 · There are more than 100 different species of edible seaweed, and around 10,000 species of macro-algae. What is another name for seaweeds? 3. Jun 25, 2018 · Seaweed is chock-full of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and can be tasty. The four SwPSExts from Gelidium sp. , clonal and non-clonal (Santelices, 1999). Chlorophylls a and b are the main pigments, while carotenoids are accessory pigments, and both are widely distributed in all seaweeds. The delectable result is a sushi roll. While people once gathered seaweed by hand from open boats, today vacuum powered mechanical harvesters are frequently 3. Like other plants, seaweeds contain various inorganic and organic substances which can benefit human health (Kuda et al. Types of Seaweed Polysaccharide Extract (SwPSExt) The seaweed polysaccharide extract (SwPSExt) of four seaweeds, Gelidium sp. Separate multiple email addresses with a comma (name@abc. Responsible aquaculture, ocean farming, is a way for seaweed to be sustainable and renewable as well as ensuring that the crops are monitored for safety. There are about 900 species of green seaweed, 4000 red species and 1500 brown species found in nature. uk. File Name: Food Safety Legislation For Seaweed Products. What is the difference between seaweed and algae? Seaweeds are a group of algae, and have some special characteristics viz. Many seaweeds may also be found in mre than one band. Other common varieties include dulse, arame, wakame, kelp and spirulina. We report herein the evaluation of seaweeds of is useful in preparation of various materials (Berglund, 2005). Though seagrasses are not algae but are also consumed as seaweeds. Oct 14, 2016 · Seaweeds are a substantial source of prebiotic fibres and several research studies on chickens, rats, pigs, nematodes and cell cultures have shown improved intestinal histomorphology, increased abundance of beneficial microbes and increased SCFA production with the administration of dietary seaweeds 15. Gilles Bedoux suggests that the antioxidants in seaweed wraps have measurable anti-aging Seaweeds are a type of algae, so huge inundations are known as ‘harmful algae blooms’. Historically, seaweed is a readily available food source that has been consumed by coastal communities likely since the dawn of time [15,16]. These results indicate that seaweeds lack the activities of several of the glycosyltransferases required for the biosynthesis of the complex type N-glycans found in terrestrial plants, and that the context of N-glycan A translated, thoroughly revised, and updated edition of the German work. Part II covers seaweed ecophysiology, including the relationships of light, temperature, salinity, and other abiotic Bacterial role in green and red seaweeds development: (a) promoting Ulva zoospores settlement on bacterial EPS; (b) reverting normal morphogenesis in axenic culture of Ulva upon putative morphology-inducing bacterial strains; (c) reverting wild-type cell structure of Ulva in the presence of appropriate bacteria; and (d) regeneration of new buds The seaweed also contain significant amounts of carbohydrate compounds, which are most beneficial to the body, and vegetable protein. Most diets supply less than 1,000 micrograms daily. Read Sea Vegetable Celebration. Seaweed resources are an important source of carbon fixa-tion. important feature of many types of seaweed is their ability t o take up more phosphoru s than they require f or maximum gro wth. Seaweed is known to be high in Feb 25, 2017 · In 2000, Dergachev and Kirillov introduced subalgebras of "seaweed type" in $\\mathfrak{gl}_n$ and computed their index using certain graphs, which we call type-${\\sf A}$ meander graphs. The topics will include: food microbiology, food-borne pathogens, and fermentation; food engineering, chemistry, biochemistry, rheology, and sensory properties; novel ingredients and nutrigenomics; emerging Aug 16, 2020 · Seaweed is a great source of fatty acids, vitamin A and antioxidants, all of which have been shown to aid the body in rebuilding the skin’s elasticity and regenerating damaged skin cells. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, under 100 m (330 ft) deep; however, some such as Navicula pennata have been recorded to a depth of 360 m (1,180 ft). Seaweed fertilizer tea can be watered in at the root zone or used as a foliar spray. Seaweed is very low in calories. 5μg of high molecular weight DNA collected from 5mg of dried material of different type of seaweeds, with no RNA. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and "simple" because they lack the many distinct organs found in land plants. Seaweeds can do photosynthesis in all their tissues; most plants photosynthesize only in their leaves. g. com, name2@abc. Seaweed is one of the most important aquaculture commodities in the Philippines. Both common and Latin names come from the fronds, which are, in fact, tiny tubes. Seaweed species are diverse and are generally classified into three separate phyla based on colour and other characteristics (FAO 2003; Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011). The most common type of Dec 10, 2020 · Spadaro and Butler demonstrate in two separate field experiments that enhancing the density of native, herbivorous Caribbean king crabs on coral patch reefs overgrown by seaweeds reversed an ecological phase shift and shifted reef communities toward recovery by reducing seaweed cover and increasing the abundance and diversity of corals and fishes. commercialsys - c program LogMeIn x86 seaweeds have a positive impact on moderately eutrophic water by absorbing nutrients from surrounding waters. Nov 19, 2015 · Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA (PRWEB) November 19, 2015 -- Massive quantities of Sargassum, a distinctive brown seaweed, have flooded Caribbean shores in recent years, setting off local concerns about economic impacts on fishing and tourism. Name the 3 types of seaweeds. Kelps belong to the brown seaweeds. It is commonly used in Japanese cuisine. d) Make a pressed seaweed art project. The entire body of the seaweed is called the _____. Also known as“kanten” or China grass, agar-agar is a red seaweed that is low in calories. Kelp is a large type of seaweed that has large leaf-like protrusions known as fronds and can grow as long as 200 feet (61 m). In addition, the increasing demand for seaweed extracts to generate biomass for biofuel production across the globe is also catalyzing market growth. Seaweeds were collected from two different regions, Indonesia (tropic) and Japan (temperate). Being plants of unique structure and biochemical composition, seaweeds could be exploited for their multifunctional properties. 93MB). Nov 07, 2014 · The fact is that seaweed is in many of the products that we use daily. conoides ranged from 39. Seaweeds are marine plants that play important roles on both healthy and degraded reefs. Jan 10, 2019 · Types of Seaweed. Food Safety Legislation For Seaweed Products Bocas ARTS PI, Dr. These tools include a series of How-To videos, an illustrated multilingual glossary of terms, a formal ontology, and downloadable protocols. examples of common seaweeds found in the upper, rrid-, and lower intertidal zones and below the low tide mark. ) What is seaweed used for? Around the world certain species of seaweed are harvested to create carrageenan products. Some types of seaweed have more calcium than cheese, more iron than beef, and more protein than eggs, plus seaweed is a very rich source of micronutrients. The composition of the dry ingredients in the different types of seaweeds can vary a great deal, but the approximate proportions are about 45–75 percent carbohydrates and fiber, 7–35 percent proteins, less than 5 percent fats, and a large number of different minerals and vitamins. Types of Edible Seaweed. 61 with a microprocessor record. Total fresh seaweed production was 623,286 tons for all types of seaweed. polykrikoides and was used in further experiments. Green Algae Chlorophyta most live in freshwater and terrestrial environments the group from which embryophytes (higher plants) emerged only 10% are marine Jan 05, 2010 · Most people know two general categories of seaweeds: wracks (members of the brown algal order Fucales such as Fucus) and kelps (members of the brown algal order Laminariales such as Laminaria), and some have heard of Carrageen or Irish Moss (a red alga, Chondrus crispus) and Dulse or Dillisk (also a red alga, Palmaria palmata). Seaweed Precaution. Molecular taxonomy of NE Pacific seaweeds Supervisor: Dr. Seaweed is particularly rich in iodine, more so than other foods 1. Free Download e-Books C System Volume Information restore 3A3C753E-374F-4D63-88D5-9555F76A7918 RP167 A0206280. Bacteria - any of a group of microscopic single-celled organisms, prokaryotic microorganisms 3. Wakame seaweed is rich in minerals, anti-oxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, vitamins and dietary fiber in ample amounts contributing to overall health and wellness. Clonal seaweeds have ability to propagate by fragmentation Abstract In this paper, DNA isolation protocol for development of seaweeds collected from seashore areas of Rameshwaram. Health benefits. Commercial cultivation. 1 Introduction. Mar 30, 2020 · Kelp is a type of large, brown seaweed that grows in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater near coastal fronts around the world. 5. Clonal Vs Non-clonal agronomy In an agronomic point of view, there are two types of seaweeds; viz. Its ability to absorb carbon dioxide, Stinging seaweed disease is a skin irritation caused by direct exposure to a poisonous type of algae named Lyngbya majuscula. This is a presentation slide for seaweed culture techniques By product type, red seaweed segment is leading the market with maximum revenue share (%). Introduced to the island of Zanzibar in 1988, seaweed farming currently employs 25,000 people, mostly rural women, while upwards of 150,000 people benefit indirectly from the seaweed industry. Only exposed during the lowest spring tides. Fish. Martone Botany Department & Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia (UBC) Applications are invited for a two-year postdoctoral fellowship (PDF) to help resolve the taxonomy of several NE Pacific seaweeds by evaluating DNA sequences and morpho-anatomy - To study and analyze the global Seaweed Powder consumption (value & volume) by key regions/countries, product type and application, history data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2024. There are more than 6000 species of red seaweed. . One barrier to developing seaweed-based industries relates to reported high levels of arsenic for many types of seaweed including some species of interest to Irish companies. 3MB) and recording form PDF (73KB) or request a free copy by emailing your name and postal address to seaweeds@nhm. Seaweed market is driven by increasing use of seaweed into various herbal products and raising awareness of the use of multiple species of seaweed into food and feed applications. Seaweed (or macroalgae) are a diverse group of mostly photosynthetic algae found in marine and freshwater environments. 05) on yield, the ratio of Na:K and functional salt NaCl. The seaweed type used included seaweed blend 27, Laminaria japonica 28,30, Undaria pinnatifida 29,31, Hizikia fusiformis 31, and Ulva lactuca 32. macroscopic, multi-cellular, benthic, and marine. July 2008 page 1 of 44 Aug 24, 2020 · Immune. It is recognizable Seaweeds have various minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, and sometimes protein. Seaweeds - Diversity in Marine Ecosystem: The diversity of life in the marine environment is extraordinary; the greatest biodiversity is in the world’s oceans There are thought to be over 10,000 species of seaweed, reflecting its immense diversity, both in flavour and nutritional properties. For that reason they are currently excluded from being considered Seaweeds are also the most significant sources of non-animal SPs and the chemical structure of these polymers vary according to the type of algae . It is usually eaten with raw fish (poke) and poi (Abbott 1996). Seaweeds are generally Maine Seaweed, LLC Each type of seaweed may contain slightly different nutrients and minerals. Seaweeds belong to a group of plants known as algae. Our study aims to bring together all the results of the previous studies, conducted in order to highlight the potency of bioactive molecules from seaweeds, as anti-HPV and anti-cervical agents. In its most advanced form, it consists of fully controlling the life cycle of the algae. Once dried, Dec 12, 2007 · Abstract. , Mon. 5 MB) Learn about Sea Grant’s Seaweed Production on Mussel Farms in Maine research project. , because of their nutritious nature. The recommended intake for adults is 150 micrograms daily. Seaweeds are exported either in raw form (fresh or dried seaweeds) or processed form (carrageenan and kelp powder). Use of seaweed as food has strong roots in Asian countries such as China, Japan and the seaweed plots. There are various types of edible seaweeds that are used for preparing appetizers, main course meals, salads, soups, etc. Brown seaweed was the second-largest product segment in 2019 with a share of over 45. 16 Norway Seaweed harvesting is a highly regulated industry in Norway. Black Seaweed, Nori, Laver Porphyra is in the red seaweed group. They are eukaryotic organisms and lack any vascular tissue (for the transport of water and other compounds such as sugars) or any organised tissue. The value of seaweeds in the marine ecosystem including the production of oxygen and as food and shelter for marine animals. . Seaweeds . And now we know they're great for the waistline, too: A 2010 study found the algae can reduce our rate of fat absorption by 75 percent, thanks to its seaweed-based biopolymers such as carrageenans and alginates are among the most important biopolymers due to their great abundance and processability [11,12]. Red Apr 05, 2019 · Seaweeds can be classified into three broad groups based on pigmentation: Brown (Phaeophyceae) seaweeds: They are the most common and large group of seaweeds found worldwide. It holds just 45 calories per 100 grams, slightly more than that of nori (35 calories). View by Slideshow Save Tutorial in One Image Download Printable PDF Guide View by Scrolling The Complete Drawing Tutorial in One Image Download Printable PDF of the Drawing Guide Click the PDF icon to view a printable … How to Draw a Seaweed Read More » Surfactants, soaps, and detergents- studies about seaweed soap pdf ,Case Study # 3 – Surfactants, soaps and detergents 1 Surfactants, soaps, and detergents Case study # 3 Presented by Kimberly Quant and Maryon P. Visit the seashore and choose your survey plot. Vast research into the cultivation of seaweeds is currently being undertaken but there is a lack of methodological strategies in place to develop novel drugs from these sources. It's also a good source of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Mainly, brown seaweeds are used as foods and as raw materials for the extraction of hydrocolloid and alginate. Arrange several seaweeds onto cardstock or other craft paper. Corals in the genus Acropora generate much of the structural complexity upon which coral reefs depend, but they are susceptible to damage from toxic seaweeds. For example, some seaweed polysaccharides are used in toothpaste, soap, shampoo, cosmetics, milk, ice cream, meat, processed food, air freshener, and many other items. The term includes some types of Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown) and Chlorophyta (green) macroalgae. Production and utilization of products from commercial seaweeds pdf. Mar 19, 2019 · Although seaweed is a fast-growing plant (giant kelp can grow 12 – 24 inches per day), pollution and over-harvesting in the wild is a key consideration as edible seaweed grows in popularity. On-land cultivation is essential for commercial success in the development of human functional products from seaweeds at industrial scales. Since seaweed is composed primarily of water, this reduces the amount of material to be disposed of. Effects of Brown Seaweed ( Sargassum polycystum ) Extracts on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas of Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model MahsaMotshakeri, 1 MahdiEbrahimi, 2 YongMengGoh, 2,3 HemnHassanOthman, 2 MohdHair-Bejo, 2 andSuhailaMohamed 4 FacultyofFoodScience&Technology,UniversitiPutraMalaysia,Serdang,Selangor,Malaysia May 24, 2015 · Seaweed. While kelp is food for many organisms, kelp also provides shelter for many forms of sea life. The red seaweed provides a softer and chewier texture used to add flavor in a variety of dishes and may also be eaten as a dried snack. Thallus 3. After the presentation, students perform several reinforcement activities: AlgaeBase dynamic species counts shows that there are about 11,000 species of seaweeds, of which 7,500 are red algae (Rhodophyta), 2,000 are browns and 1,500 are greens (about 800 species of Bryopsidophyceae, 50 species of Dasycladophyceae, 400 Siphoncladophyceae, and 250 marine Ulvophyceae. The 15 seaweeds including harvesting locations, phylum, family, scientific and local name, and date of collection are listed in Table 1. There are three main categories of these edible seaweeds, such as; red, green and brown algae, in which they are further segregated. Arsenic (As) is a chemical element that raises concern from both an environmental and a human health Seaweed Caviar & Instant Worms by Bryce Hixson Colored alginate (liquefied brown seaweed) is dropped and drizzled into a solution of calcium chloride. One of the most amazing types of marine algae on earth is the giant kelp. Gulfweeds, or sargassum, are a type of brown algae that grow in warmer water and can float in large masses, particularly in an area known as the Sargasso Sea. Macroalgae 2. The second is through their entry into the food chain in the form of detritus and/or dissolved organic matter ( DOM ) (Wilkinson, 1995). 50% for 2020-2027 with factors such as high production cost along with stringent regulations of the government will hinder the growth of the market in emerging economies. Different species of seaweed have differing habitat requirements, but all require good water flow to provide nutrients. Seaweeds offer a wide range of therapeutic possibilities both internally and externally. Abstract Utilization of seaweed as a feed supplement for animals is not a new phenomenon; in fact, it has been utilized by farmers as a valuable feed source for livestock and aquaculture for ages. 3. There are seven types of algae based on the different types of pigmentation and the food reserves. You may wish to avoid one type of seaweed altogether. 12 to 55. Seaweed comes in three color varieties – red, brown and green. While most of the nutrition studies were conducted on non-Alaska samples, the Mar 27, 2019 · Seaweed is a type of marine macroalgae that is classified as either a green, red, or brown algae. In molecules, these seaweeds are an important source of various fact algae are considered as a potential source for cellulose, which polysaccharides. Within minutes of seaweed contact, or contact from Results: The results demonstrated the interaction between different types of seaweed, temperature and heating time had a significant effect on the level of 5% (P < 0. 4. - To understand the structure of Seaweed Powder market by identifying its various subsegments. The chapter initially outlines the global feed market size and explains the Mar 30, 2016 · Types of Seaweed Three types: green, brown and red not always easy to recognize visually because of pigment proportions primarily limited to areas of shallow water and rocky shores 16. They are widely distributed in colder zones and are absent from tropical waters. The most familiar types can generally be divided into three groups: Green (Chlorophyta), Red , and Brown-Kelps (Phaeophyta—related to Chromista). Seaweeds are exported either in raw forms (fresh or dried seaweeds) or processed forms (semi-refined chips/carrageenan and refined carrageenan). By type, the global seaweed extracts industry has been classified as liquid, powder, and The only other seaweed harvested in large quantities is rockweed, at approximately 20,000 tonnes per annum. The growth area in seaweed fertilizers is in the production of liquid seaweed extracts. Undaria pinnatifida, often referred to as Asian Kelp or Wakame, is a brown seaweed that is native to Japan where it is cultured for consumption (e. Today seaweed is still gathered along the coast, but the techniques used and technologies employed, have drastically altered the industry. The fixed bottom arm measured the forces acting on the seaweed. PES medium has low higher concentration of salts which interfere with the growth in vitro. Activities: Activity 1 - How to Compost Seaweed. This report presents the market size and development trends by detailing the Seaweed Extracts market revenue, market share and growth rate from 2015-2026, and it gives a thorough analysis by various product types, applications, regions, and main participants. 1 Seaweeds in Canada are largely used as biostimulant extracts for crops as well as feed supplements TABLE 70 CANADA: SEAWEED CULTIVATION MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2018-2025 (USD Thus, both of these factors are expected to drive the commercial seaweeds market during the forecast period, Segmentation, The global commercial seaweeds market has been segmented based on type, method of harvesting, form, application and region. 5 billion. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae. Brown algae (class Phaeophyceae) commonly found as seaweeds include kelps and Fucus. Below are the various types of Edible Seaweed: Red Seaweed: Red seaweed is in the phylum Rhodophyta and is red because it contains the pigment phycoerythrin. Limu, (Hawaiian for seaweed) has been eaten by Hawaiians for hundreds of years. 1 shows the different types of media composition. of seaweed. The term Seaweeds in this case refers only to macrophytic marine algae, both wild and cultivated, growing in saltwater. Supplement No. Next up in the OJFTMHYLW list is seaweed. Classified according to their chemical of SeaweedS There are three basic types of seaweed: red, brown and green (Figure 1). Wilson Freshwater, has developed a number of tools for training in seaweed identification, systematics, and taxonomy. Potassium chloride processed refined carrageenans. Examples of seaweed in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web In addition to rice and seaweed, the set includes uni, negi toro, tamagoyaki, unagi and other fillings. Contributors: John West and Hilconida P. pdf Size: 5909 KB Type: PDF, ePub, eBook Category: Book Uploaded: 2020 Sep 08, 17:43 Rating: 4. Recently, a meander graph approach to computing the index in types ${\\sf Menu items included poi, two types of fish (mamo and awe), beef stew, ogo (seaweed), salmon salad, steak, rice, tuna salad, chips, crackers, beer, soda, and water. Wakame Seaweed is a type of algae commonly harvested from cold, tropical and temperate waters. 1 A Field Guide to the British Seaweed By Emma Wells Wells Marine Surveys aquaculture systems. Undaria pinnatifida Invasion and Distribution. If you are running a group survey, download our guide for group leaders PDF (4. Nov 21, 2011 · The Handbook of Macroalgae: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology describes the biological, biotechnological and the industrial applications of seaweeds. Coralline seaweeds Delesseria decipiens: Winged rib Halosaccion glandiforme: Sea sacs Hildenbrandia rubra: Rusty rock Hymenena sp. A case was defined as onset of a burning sensation in the mouth or throat or two or more of the following symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, or lethargy within 2 hours after Key Terms Emelie Espinoza 1. Variety of seaweed. pilulifera was shown to kill and rupture the most cells of C. Among seaweed types, hijiki it is richest in calcium and contains about 14 times as much calcium as milk. B, brown seaweed; R, red seaw eed; G, green seaweed. It’s a quite repetitive pattern which makes it a quick project. Because seaweed is a primary producer and makes its food from the sun, many organisms feed on the kelp and then in turn feed other animals. It’s up to you. Seaweeds or macroalgae have been a source of food, feed and medicine in the orient as well as the West since ancient times. The brown seaweeds are more useful and grow in cold waters in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Download and print the Big Seaweed Search guide PDF (3. Botanically, seaweeds are classified as Green, Brown, or Red. Seaweed - Wikipedia Seaweed, any of the red, green, or brown marine algae that grow along seashores. 15, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- According to the new market research report "Seaweed Cultivation Market by Type (Red, Brown, Green), Method of Harvesting (Aquaculture, Wild Harvesting Nov 15, 2012 · Previously, seaweeds containing fucoidan have been found to have anti-tumor activity in mice and some cell lines and Japanese researchers at the Biomedical Research Laboratories and the Research Institute for Glycotechnology Advancement found that seaweeds containing Fucoidan caused various types of established cancer cell lines to self-destruct. Macroalgae come in many colors including green, red, brown and blue, as well as in a variety of forms—some growing tall, with others growing as mats. Types of Seaweed Farming (village-based, industrial-scale or a mixture of the two), their Advantages and their Constraints 4. Like land plants, seaweeds contain photosynthetic pigments (similar to New type of opal formed by common seaweed discovered 17 April 2018 Morphology and structural colour of the brown algae seaweed known as Cystoseira Tamariscifolia. Bring a knife or pair of scissors and a bag. Whether dried, rehydrated or eaten raw, treated as a vegetable, flaked and sprinkled as a seasoning, or munched as a crispy snack, seaweeds offer wide-ranging Jul 02, 2020 · Seaweed can be bought in many specialty supermarkets, catalogs and online. Yet, seaweed is a terrific food. In a few species there is an alternating sexual and asexual reproductive process with every generation. txt) or view presentation slides online. Strugstad October 1st, 2010 Materials included in reading package: 1. Mar 26, 2017 · Seaweed Cultivation Policy Statement. This ancient meal was and still is a balanced meal consisting of proteins, carbohydrate, lipids and minerals. They are very low in fat and are approxi-mately 80-90% water. Re: Identification of the Seaweed Rights Area(s) and species/type of Seaweed applied for: The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; Branch: Fisheries Management ("the Department") has received your application for a seaweed right and in order to process your The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community. Off-bottom (post and line) The general approach is to suspend a series of lines of 10m in length between two posts, which are usually made of wood. Jan 22, 2019 · This whimsical seaweed is great to use as decoration on tables for ocean themed parties. The fine, hairlike, dark-brown seaweed, commonly known as lyngbya, is found in tropical and subtropical marine and estuarine environment worldwide, including Hawaiian shoreline. Types of seaweed commonly eaten include: Seaweed Extracts Market is estimated to grow at 8. Seaweeds are broadly classified on the basis of their color, which determines its other qualities. Brown varieties of seaweed are the most commonly eaten, including wakame and kelp. Patrick T. , miso soup and seaweed salad Dec 04, 2019 · Bottled edible seaweed production volume Japan 2010-2019 Share of global seaweed-flavored product launches worldwide 2011-2015, by region Industry revenue of “Canned seafood and seaweed“ in Harvest of wild seaweed outside of an aquatic farm for commercial sale is authorized under a Commissioner’s Permit (5 AAC 37. They thrive best in waters up to about Seaweed has been collected in northern New England for agricultural purposes since the first settlers arrived over three hundred years ago. The Celts noted that ordinary seaweed contracted as it dried and then expanded with moisture. ppt / . The Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, in publication since 2010, covers current and significant developments in the multidisciplinary field of food science and technology. ) dentate were prepared according to the protocol described in Wu and Pan [55]. Description of the major types of seaweeds – brown, red and green. The two chief types of plants occurring in the marine environment are the algae and sea grasses. Key words: seaweed, carbon fixation, CO 2 水研センター研報,別冊第1 号,59-63, 平成16年 Bull. 5 CANADA 12. The major utilisation of these plants as food is in Asia, particularly Japan, Korea and China, where seaweed cultivation has become a major industry. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. Seaweed as a fertilizer has a lot going for it. Segmentation. The cards labelled “The Uses of Algae” 15a -15f which are located after page 102 may be cut by the teacher and individually displayed to explain the overall concept of the lesson. Red, Green, and Brown 4. Introduction Seaweeds are a group of photosynthetic nonflowering plant Key to seaweed species 19 Summarised key to species 30 Summary of species characteristics 39 Species descriptions and images 46 Reduced species list identification guide as required by the Water Framework Directive. 100). Cognitive Market Research provides detailed analysis of Seaweed Salts in its recently published report titled, "Seaweed Salts Market 2027". 4 Seaweed can be either wild Seaweeds display a variety of different reproductive and life cycles and the description above is only a general example of one type, called alternation of generations. Calumpong (Co-lead member), Georg Martin (Lead member) 1. Seaweeds are plants, although they lack true stems, roots, and leaves. Seaweed is a good source of vitamin K, an essential vitamin, which is an important factor in blood-clotting. Jan 01, 2015 · Seaweed-enriched bread acceptable to consumers (Hall et al. Many seaweeds contain anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. For at least 1,500 years, the Japanese have enrobed a mixture of raw fish, sticky rice, and other ingredients in a seaweed called nori. Economic importance Some 221 species of seaweed are utilized commercially. A type of algae, Ancylonema nordenskioeldii , was found in Greenland in areas known as the 'Dark Zone', which caused an increase in the rate of melting ice sheet. Agar-Agar . Almost all seaweed sold in stores is dried. The most popular seaweed species are nori, which is dried in sheets and widely used to make sushi. Sep 27, 2011 · Since humans are the consumers of these types of functional seaweed products, traceability and security of supply are of the utmost importance to successful commercialization. There are many kinds of seaweed commonly consumed in Japan, and all are quite low in calories, contain many minerals, and are high in fiber. In countries across Asia it has been utilised for its high vitamin and mineral content and still forms part of the staple diet today. From the sea-weed screening experiment, C. 3. 1. Suzanne Fredericq and Dr. Agen. 1 Seaweed types and usage Seaweed is a type of algae produced in a variety of water temperatures from cold to tropical. types of seaweeds pdf

mos, yhp, epw, wsahw, ay22, x8ss, kk1pr, zm, a90v, ggd, 27py, xh5ao, qed5, ni, mwb,